Introduction : Human numbers, wealth, poverty, technology and beliefs and having planet-wide consequences. The energy and agricultural scenarios have several large environmental implications. One of particular concerns is certain chemicals that human activities are releasing into the atmosphere. Some of these chemicals are altering the planet’s temperature regulating system, threatening to change the climate and temperature of whole Earth. Others are depleting earth’s protective layer of stratospheric ozone, increasing the amount of dangerous ultraviolet light reaching ground level. Such changes in the atmosphere are responsible for many health hazards, economic losses, ecological imbalance and destruction of natural resources. Thus, the world community is worried about the future of human society itself.
Environment and its Pollution : Environment of particular place refers to an aggregate of the geosphere and biosphere obtained in that place. So, the state of environment of that place is the function of the quantitative and qualitative state of a number of variable indicators of the geosphere and biosphere pertaining to that place.
The variable indicators in geosphere include land, air and water systems with non-living and non-biological resources in it, whereas those in biosphere are human beings, various other biological systems as various microorganisms, wildlife, croplands, forests, grasslands, wetlands and fisheries etc. Hence, any examination of the state of environment requires taking into account the state of environment requires taking into account the state of these indicators constituting the overall environmental system.
Causes of Envirnonmental Pollution : Let us first take a look at the causes of environmental pollution :
1 Industries : Industries have been polluting our environment, especially since the beginning of the industrial revolution, as mentioned above, notable due to the increasing use of fossil fuels. In the 19th Century and for a significant part of the 20th century, coal has been used to make machines work faster replacing human force.
Through pollution by industries mainly causes air pollution, soil and water contamination can also occur. This is particularly the case for power-generating industries, such as plants producing electricity (May they be a dam, a nuclear reactor or some other type of plant).
Also, the transportation of this energy can be harmful to the environment. We can take as an example the transportation of petrol through pipelines; if there is a leak in the pipeline, the soil will automatically be polluted.
At eh same time, if the tanker transporting petrol tram its production plant to the place where it will be consumed leaks of sinks, the water will get contaminated.
2. Transportation : Ever since men abandoned animal power to travel, pollution of the environment has become higher and higher. Its levels have only been increasing until now. Similarly to industries, pollution caused by transport can mainly be attributed to fossil fuels.
Indeed, humans came across a long way from horse carriages to cars, trains (which, before electricity, used to be propelled by coal), and aeroplanes. As traffic is increasing everyday, pollution follows that evolution.
3. Agricultural Activities : Agriculture is mainly responsible for the contamination of water and soil. This is caused by the increased use of pesticides, as well as by the intensive character of its production. Almost all pesticides are made from chemical substances and are meant to keep diseases and threatening animals away from the crops.
However, by keeping these forms of life away, the harm is almost always made to the surrounding environment as well.
Furthermore, as agriculture gets more and more intensive to feed the increasing world population, more invironments and ecosystems are destroyed to make space for the srops. Some of them, like rapeseed-used to make oil-demand a lot of space for a relatively small output.
4. Trading Activities : Trading activities include the production and exchange of goods and services. As regards goods, pollution can be caused by packaging (which after involves the use of plastic, which is made from fossil fuels) or transport, mainly.
5 Residences : Finally, residential areas provide their fair share of pollution as well. First, to be able to build homes, the natural environment has to be destroyed in one way or another.
Wildlife and plants are driven away and replaced by human constructions. As it requires the work of industries, construction itself is also a source of contamination of the environment.
Following that, when people settle in, they will produce waste everyday, including a part that cannot be processed by the environment without any harm yet.
Remedies : Although the world community is worried about the issue of environmental pollution and a number of programmes, policies and proposals have been made to prevent environmental pollution. However, none of these initiatives has been proven to be effective.
- Public motivation and awareness programmes about environment should be promoted.
- Our civil society must come forward. If the civil society comes forward with motivational programmes, people will come forward with a movement, which in turn may ensure governmental commitment.
- As the government agencies are seriously handicapped by the inadequacy of personnel, ancillary support, plan and fund, public motivation and awareness programmes, aimed at community-based solutions would be a cost-effective approach in dealing with this massive problem.
- Appropriate technology for better disposal, recycling and resource recovery should be searched, and their technical and financial viability should be assessed.
- Our household should be made it understand that it is their civic responsibility not only to throw the waste randomly rather to keep it in the dustbins so that the personnel can easily collect them.
- Waste minimization and pollution prevention programmes should be introduced in industries.
- Unplanned urbanization and industrialization should be stopped. All unauthorized construction, filling and encroachment should be removed.
- Drainage networks must be kept clear of solid waste, especially polythene bags. Government commitment to ban polythene should come into reality.
- Phasing out the use of leaded petrol as soon as possible, stopping the issuance of new licences and route permits for three-wheelers with 2-stroke engines and phasing out the existing 2-stroke engine three-wheelers.
- Fines for repeated violations of motor vehicles regulation should be increased and emission standard for all types of vehicles should be established.
- The success of efforts to curb air pollution will depend on collaboration among policy-makers and stakeholders from the environment, transport and energy sector, and dynamic partnerships among the government, private sector and general public. The media have a vital role in building the consensus necessary for such partnerships to develop. Good investigative reporting of the technical issues involved can build the understanding and political support necessary for decisive actions to be taken.
Conclusion : The above discussion shows that environmental pollution has become a threat to our existence on this earth. All the creatures are under the threat of demolition due to change of climate. So, as the best of all creatures, human beings should not be indifferent to the situation. We should do our best to protect this earth.